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Energy Storage

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Energy Storage

Problem Solution
Pumped Hydro Storage (PHS)
Current PHS requires a large footprint and has a significant environmental impact due to need for a dam and two reservoirs. LVM Technology only requires water tanks which are placed at the same location. LVM Technology is a closed system that does not impact natural streams or rivers and uses no toxic substances.
PHS is very costly and takes a long time to implement. LVM Technology is far less costly and requires less time to construct.
The ideal locations for the current PHS are already taken, and the elevation difference needed between the two reservoirs is a major limiting factor. LVM Technology can be placed anywhere and requires no elevation difference. It can be close to the renewable energy sources or the consumers which would decrease the need for long distance power transmission.
- In order to generate a water pressure comparable to LVM Technology The elevation difference between the high and the low reservoir must be at least 1,744 feet. Most major dams are less than 450 feet and the tallest dam in the world is 935 feet. LVM Technology generates higher energy density per unit volume than current PHS. LVM Technology pressurizes water to a minimum of 750 psi resulting in much higher water pressures flowing through a turbine when compared to dams.
Current PHS loses energy due to evaporative loss. LVM Technology is a closed system that has no such loss.
In current PHS the turbines are not fine-tuned to a specific water pressure. The flow of water has to be adjusted to compensate for changes in water head. With LVM Technology the stored water flows through the turbine at a constant pressure. This allows for the selection of a turbine that is finely tuned to that pressure. Also since the pressure in the tanks remains constant it minimizes metal fatigue throughout filling and draining cycles.
Batteries
Batteries have limited life spans requiring replacement every few years. Deep cycling accelerates their deterioration. Furthermore, they are expensive and environmentally hazardous to manufacture and dispose of. LVM Technology has a longer lifespan as there are no moving parts except the bladder , which can be replaced. LVM Technology is designed to be deep-cycled and uses no hazardous chemicals.
Batteries maximum storage is four to six hours of electricity. LVM Technology can be scaled to provide energy for days or weeks and is limited only by the size and number of tanks. LVM Technology can also be used for behindthe-meter applications.
Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES)
CAES has several site limitations requiring caverns and/or reservoirs. LVM Technology has no site limitations.
The pressure of the compressed air in CAES gradually decreases as it is discharged. This reduces the efficiency of regenerating electricity and thus of the round trip. LVM Technology discharges at a constant pressure which is maintained automatically by the Liquid-VaporMixture.
Advanced CAES attempts to address the need for a constant pressure by using a water reservoir. System pressure is then limited by the height of the column of water, which also limits where a system can be installed. The system would need to be > 1700 feet high to match the pressure of LVM. LVM Technology maintains a constant pressure and thus has not height or comparable location limitations.
CAES is subject to evaporative losses, impacting efficiency. LVM Technology is a closed-loop system that is not impacted by evaporative losses.