|Pumped Hydro Storage (PHS)
|Current PHS requires a large footprint and has a
significant environmental impact due to need for a dam
and two reservoirs.
||LVM Technology only requires water tanks which are
placed at the same location. LVM Technology is a closed
system that does not impact natural streams or rivers
and uses no toxic substances.
|PHS is very costly and takes a long time to implement.
||LVM Technology is far less costly and requires less time
|The ideal locations for the current PHS are already taken, and the
elevation difference needed between the two reservoirs is a major
||LVM Technology can be placed anywhere and requires
no elevation difference. It can be close to the renewable
energy sources or the consumers which would decrease
the need for long distance power transmission.
|- In order to generate a water pressure comparable to LVM Technology
The elevation difference between the high and the low reservoir must
be at least 1,744 feet. Most major dams are less than 450 feet and the
tallest dam in the world is 935 feet.
||LVM Technology generates higher energy density per
unit volume than current PHS. LVM Technology
pressurizes water to a minimum of 750 psi resulting in
much higher water pressures flowing through a turbine
when compared to dams.
|Current PHS loses energy due to evaporative loss.
||LVM Technology is a closed system that has no such
|In current PHS the turbines are not fine-tuned to a specific water
pressure. The flow of water has to be adjusted to compensate for
changes in water head.
||With LVM Technology the stored water flows through
the turbine at a constant pressure. This allows for the
selection of a turbine that is finely tuned to that
pressure. Also since the pressure in the tanks remains
constant it minimizes metal fatigue throughout filling
and draining cycles.
|Batteries have limited life spans requiring replacement every few
years. Deep cycling accelerates their deterioration. Furthermore, they
are expensive and environmentally hazardous to manufacture and
||LVM Technology has a longer lifespan as there are no
moving parts except the bladder , which can be replaced.
LVM Technology is designed to be deep-cycled and uses
no hazardous chemicals.
|Batteries maximum storage is four to six hours of electricity.
LVM Technology can be scaled to provide energy for
days or weeks and is limited only by the size and number
of tanks. LVM Technology can also be used for behindthe-meter applications.
|Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES)
|CAES has several site limitations requiring caverns and/or reservoirs.
LVM Technology has no site limitations.
|The pressure of the compressed air in CAES gradually decreases as it is
discharged. This reduces the efficiency of regenerating electricity and
thus of the round trip.
LVM Technology discharges at a constant pressure
which is maintained automatically by the Liquid-VaporMixture.
|Advanced CAES attempts to address the need for a constant pressure
by using a water reservoir. System pressure is then limited by the
height of the column of water, which also limits where a system can be
installed. The system would need to be > 1700 feet high to
match the pressure of LVM.
LVM Technology maintains a constant pressure and
thus has not height or comparable location limitations.
|CAES is subject to evaporative losses, impacting efficiency.
LVM Technology is a closed-loop system that is not
impacted by evaporative losses.